ARPAF - CrossBorder

Shared by: 
Action Group 4 - Mobility
Lead organization: 
Swiss Center for mountain regions SAB

Cross-border Mobility in the Alpine Region
ARPAF Project “CrossBorder”

The ARPAF CrossBorder Compendium
of Cross-Border Mobility in the Alpine Region

After two years of project duration, the ARPAF project CrossBorder is coming to an end in December 2019. At the 3rd EUSALP Annual Forum in November 2019, the project’s final event is being held. There, the project partners present the main results; representatives from cross-border commuting hotspots relate their experiences; a panel discusses the key findings of the project; and AG4 and AG5 lay out their plans for integrating the project results in their activities going forward.

To present a synthesis of the most important findings and insights of CrossBorder in a single compact form, a project Compendium was produced to summarize all the project results. It begins with the foundational CrossBorder study Analysis of existing cross-border mobility networks. This study constitutes the basis for the entire project, as it provides an overview of cross-border commuting, including an analysis of the quality of infrastructure networks in twelve Alpine cross-border commuting hotspots. Not least because the Alpine Region accounts for almost half of all European cross-border commuter flows, it is crucial to have compiled this statistical and cartographic overview for the region.

Considering this massive amount of cross-border traffic flows, it becomes clear that cross-border cooperation in mobility is imperative. Therefore, the CrossBorder Compendium goes on to present the results of the CrossBorder report Collection of existing cooperation models for cross-border mobility. From a set of diverse cooperation models, the report concludes several success factors and challenges in cross-border mobility cooperation in the Alpine Region. Consequently, these findings can be consulted when trying to successfully transfer or establish cross-border cooperation elsewhere. Additionally, these insights are accessible in an interactive story map.

Further tracing the project’s logic, the subsequent section of the CrossBorder Compendium synthesizes all the solutions to improve cross-border mobility and passenger flows that were gathered within CrossBorder. They include a toolbox for company mobility management; a report on the potentials of digitalization and innovative mobility solutions for public authorities and transport operators; and a Compact on Behaviour Change for commuters.

In parallel to the substantive work carried out within the CrossBorder project, workshops were held in the commuting hotspots to bring together the relevant stakeholders including commuters, service providers, enterprises, and public authorities. The topics, discussions, and results of the hotspot workshops are summarized in the next section of the CrossBorder Compendium.

Finally, nine political recommendations for improving cross-border mobility in the Alpine Region are presented. This section of the CrossBorder Compendium explains how each recommendation is informed by the results of the CrossBorder project; how it would improve cross-border mobility in the Alpine Region; and how to implement the recommendation.

In conclusion, the CrossBorder Compendium lays out the way ahead in cross-border mobility in the Alpine Region and how AG4 and AG5 will take the CrossBorder project results and integrate them in their continued work on improving cross-border mobility and passenger flows in the Alpine Region.


The CrossBorder Compendium is available for download in all Alpine Languages: [EN] [DE] [FR] [IT] [SI]


Main Results


Influence of Remote Work on cross border passenger flows - Final Report

This CrossBorder study investigates potentials, advantages, and challenges of Remote Work for both employees as well as employers. Remote Work has potential to relieve major traffic axes or shift peak traffic times to secondary traffic times, depending on factors such as region-specific framework conditions, attractiveness of public transport, available parking space, settlement structures, mobility pricing, length of commuting routes, traffic situation as well as social factors. Moreover, Remote Work is considered to offer a range of advantages and disadvantages to both employers and employees. From the employers’ perspective, it can increase recruitment potential, lead to stronger commitment, higher productivity, image enhancement, cost savings etc. However, it may also pose challenges to employers such as a required change in leadership style. From the employees’ perspective, it provides a range of benefits including better balance of professional, family and social life, reduction of travel time and costs, higher job satisfaction, lower levels of stress and fatigue, improved health conditions, higher job performance and increased productivity, job autonomy, and organizational commitment. Yet, from the eyes of employees, Remote Work can also create certain disadvantages like stress, professional and social isolation, or longer working hours. However, it is important to note that in general the advantages of Remote Work outweigh the disadvantages. Finally, this study makes suggestions how to overcome the potential risks of Remote Work and investigates collective and legal labour regulations or the double taxation agreement between EUSALP states.

The study is available for download here. The attached slide set is available for download here.



WP4 Synthesis Report on Improvement of cross-border mobility and passenger flows – Innovative solutions for public authorities and transport operators

This study examined examples of innovative mobility solutions from the Alpine Region and beyond in order to investigate their potential to improve cross-border mobility and passenger flows. Classic projects, innovative projects, and new players in mobility were investigated in terms of stakeholder types, their goals, needs, and motivations as well as their differing levels of interest and influence. The annex Project Factsheets summarizes the results. Furthermore, in the annex Archetype Factsheets, cooperation potentials for public authorities and transport providers including individual SWOT analyses can be reviewed.

Summary of study results

Please find attached to this article the full report available for download.



Toolbox with measures for sustainable commuter mobility

A toolbox that encompassed concrete measures for enterprises to encourage sustainable commuter mobility has been developed, with the focus on (1) organizational measures and incentive systems, (2) infrastructure measures and (3) information, actions and campaigns.

Surveying mobility behaviors is the first step towards the definition of adequate measures of enterprise mobility management and to assess the success of initiatives as well as to raise awareness among employees. The toolbox proposes several best practice examples and implementation guidelines to support sustainable commuter mobility in companies, e.g. management of parking spaces, collaboration with public transport providers, logistical measures, etc.

The Toolbox is available for download in all Alpine Languages: [EN] [DE] [FR] [IT] [SI]



Compact on Behaviour Change for more sustainable mobility

Traffic congestion, CO2 emissions, and noise: personal transport has an impact on the environment, our health and safety and challenges cities, communities and businesses. Although suitable public transport or cycle paths often exist, there is a lack of awareness and an absence of tools for implementing sustainable mobility. How come we’re taking the car? Why is it so difficult to change our habits? How can we deal with switching to sustainable alternatives? In addition to the necessary infrastructure, psychological factors such as norms, values and incentives play a role in changing the mobility behaviour of commuters. Psychological findings help to understand our mobility behaviour and offer strategies for intervention and behavioural change. The Compact “Changing views, changing thoughts, changing behaviour” provides an insight into the topic of behavioural change and offers inspiration for more sustainable mobility.

The Compact is available for download in all Alpine Languages: [EN] [DE] [FR] [IT] [SI]



WP3 Final Report on Cooperation in cross-border mobility in the Alpine region

CIPRA International, as project partner in the ARPAF Project "CrossBorder", has conducted a collection and analysis of eleven cooperation models for cross-border commuter mobility in the Alpine Region. Looking for examples for management and governance best practices, key stakeholders from within these high-potential cooperation models were interviewed focusing on how co-operation across borders works in practice. Thus, clarity in structures, responsibilities, partners' legal statuses, and political encouragement; quality and commonality in relationships and objectives; as well as a give-and-take mentality and subsidiarity were identified as success factors in cross-border cooperation. Notwithstanding, several legal, interpersonal, functional, and content related aspects were identified as major challenges in cross-border mobility cooperation in the Alpine Region.

Please find attached to this article the full report available for download.




Within the project, a set of already existing cooperation models in the Alpine Region has been collected. High-potential cooperation models possibly applicable to other Alpine regions have been defined and illustrated in a Storymap. The following Story Map will guide you through pre-selected best practice examples of cross-border commuter cooperation models in the Alpine Region.

START EXPLORING: Commuter Cooperation Models




As important basis for the next steps of the project, the University Erlangen-Nuremberg on behalf of project partner Tyrol has produced an overview of cross-border mobility across the Alpine Region with a focus on daily commuting (WP2). The report includes an analysis of the quality of connections for road and rail infrastructure in twelve selected case studies. It allows classifying and comparing hotspots of cross-border commuting in the EUSALP perimeter.

The share of cross-border commuting within the EUSALP perimeter is significantly higher than the European average values, underlining the high relevance of the topic for mobility in the Alpine Region.

Summary of study results

Please find attached to this article the full report available for download.



The Project

Since the launch of the Strategy, the Action Groups as well as the Executive Board of the Strategy have identified a number of themes and issues that need further and deeper investigation and preparatory activities in order to achieve the set goals. To support this, the Alpine Region Preparatory Action Fund (ARPAF) was developed. Five projects were selected by the EUSALP Executive Board and started in 2018; amongst them the project “CrossBorder”.

The Office of the Tyrolean Government (AdTL) as AG4 Leader joins the AG5 Co-Leader, the Swiss Center for Mountain Regions (SAB), as well as CIPRA International in the project CrossBorder on cross-border commuter mobility.

The overarching challenge in the Alpine Region is to balance economic development and environmental protection. Thus, innovative approaches and mutually beneficial interaction between the mountain regions at its core and the surrounding lowlands and urban areas are needed to ensure that this region remains one of the most attractive living spaces as well as competitive areas in Europe. However, regarding the issue of transport, infrastructure networks have for a long time been planned in a purely national context. These transport networks, therefore, are no longer in coherence with the increasing passenger flows across borders. This holds particularly true for public transport systems. Most of the commuters' transport flows across borders are by car. Congested roads with a negative impact on economy, society, and the environment are the consequence. To tackle these issues and to improve cross-border mobility in the Alpine Region, the ARPAF project CrossBorder was set up.

The aims of the project are:

  1. to establish an overview of cross-border mobility across the Alpine Region with a focus on daily commuting;
  2. to identify gaps of cross-border mobility with respect to infrastructure and soft factors;
  3. to identify solutions for facilitating daily cross-border passenger flows by sustainable transport modes through new opportunities offered by digitalisation;
  4. to provide a basis for future activities of AG4 and AG5 of EUSALP;
  5. to implement the findings in several hotspots for cross-border commuting in the Alpine Region.

Project information

Programme: Alpine Region Preparatory Fund (ARPAF)
Lead partner: Swiss Center for Mountain Regions (SAB)
Project partners: Office of the Tyrolean Government, CIPRA International
Project length: 24 months, January 2018 to December 2019
Total project budget: 698.742 Euro
EU financial contribution: 628.868 Euro



Start and closure dates: 
January 2018 to December 2019