Under activity B2 of its Work Plan 2016-2019, AG4 aimed at creating an integrated incentive system for modal shift. For this purpose, the group conducted an activity called "Preparatory study and dialogue events with strategic implementation partners to investigate and optimise multi-modal logistic chains. The outcomes provide the basis for a more comprehensive analysis on how to optimise logistic chains and combined transport flows between 1) multimodal terminals within the Alpine region, and 2) between North Sea and Mediterranean ports. The focus of multi-modal logistic chains lies on empty containers caused by imbalances in the trade area.
Container and intermodal transport is growing fast in Europe, both on sea and on land. The Alpine region, located at the crossroads between north and south of the continent, is hugely affected by these flows. This is why the preparatory study focuses on the identification of potentials to optimise multi-modal logistic chains, particularly focusing on the flows of empty containers caused by imbalances in trade in the area.
The collected data shows increasing maritime and inland containerised flows and aggregate imbalances, with continental scope for maritime flows and with national scope for inland flows. Data from EUROSTAT indicate that much of railway traffic concerning the EUSALP countries is actually intermodal and that there is still potential for shift from road to rail or, where possible, to inland waterways. Data on transport flows in the main ports and terminals as well as intermodal connections between them can be accessed via a dedicated online geodatabase.
Causes of the lack or excess of empty containers
Container imbalances may occur for several reasons, and most often due to a combination of them. Lack of containers occurs when exporters from a region cannot find suitable containers in the quantity they need to carry their goods and have to import them empty. Excess of containers occur when containers imported full do not have return loads and have to either be kept in storage until a load is found or sent away empty. In practice, there may be lack or excess of containers or both at the same time in the same area for different traffic flows and different types of containers. Challenges and solutions were discussed at four regional dialogue events with logistics stakeholders and public authorities in selected study areas (Novara and west of Lombardy, Basel and Freiburg, Tyrol, Veneto).
Empty container management requires a wider look at inermodal transport
The study suggests a number of methods to deal with imbalances of empty containers and empty container storage. Flows of empty containers often depend on several concurring factors and in some cases imbalances are due to the structure of the trade in and out of an area. It is thus recommended to gain a better understanding of the flows of empties should not be sought in isolation. A wider look at intermodal transport is required, including trade, regional economics and transport. AG4 can serve in its multi-stakeholder role as a platform to further promote regional occasions to meet and exchange on logistics solutions that affect the entire Alpine Region.
The study was commissioned by the AG4 Leader EGTC European Region Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino / Land Tyrol, Department of Transport Planning.
The main editors of the study were Maurizio Arnone and Andrea Rosa from LINKS Foundation (Turin).